Do citizens have a general constitutional right to education or a specific right to primary education?



 

This map tells us whether a country’s constitution grants citizens a general right to education or a specific right to primary education.

Only constitutional provisions are included in this map. Legislative protections are not shown here. Read more about why constitutions matter.

More information:

  • General right to education means the constitution explicitly mentions a right to education or a right to education at all levels.
  • Specific right to primary education means the constitution explicitly mentions a right to primary education, a right to education at all levels, or a right to education for at least 6 years or until at least age 11.
  • Not granted means that the constitution does not explicitly mention the right to education or primary education for all citizens. This does not mean that the constitution denies the right to education or primary education, but that it does not explicitly include either of these rights. If the right to education is only guaranteed to specific groups of people, the country will appear as not granting the right to education to all citizens on this map.
  • Aspirational means that the constitution protects the general right to education or the specific right to primary education, but does not use language strong enough to be considered a guarantee. For example, constitutions in this category might state that the country aims to protect the right to education or intends to provide free primary education.
  • Guaranteed means that the constitution protects the right to education or primary education in authoritative language. For example, constitutions in this category might guarantee citizens’ right to education or make it the State’s responsibility to provide primary education. However, constitutions in this category do not guarantee that education is free and/or compulsory.
  • Compulsory or free means that the constitution guarantees the right to free or compulsory education, but not both, in authoritative language, either generally or specifically at the primary level.
  • Compulsory and free means that the constitution guarantees both the right to free and the right to compulsory education in authoritative language, either generally or specifically at the primary level.