Do citizens have a specific constitutional right to higher education?



 

This map tells us whether a country’s constitution grants citizens a specific right to higher education.

Only constitutional provisions are included in this map. Legislative protections are not shown here. Read more about why constitutions matter.

More information:

  • Specific right to higher education means the constitution explicitly mentions a right to higher education or a right to education at all levels.
  • Not granted means that the constitution does not explicitly mention the right to higher education for all citizens. This does not mean that the constitution denies the right to higher education, but that it does not explicitly include this right. If the right to education is only guaranteed to specific groups of people, the country will appear as not granting the right to higher education to all citizens on this map.
  • Aspirational means that the constitution protects the right to higher education, but does not use language strong enough to be considered a guarantee. For example, constitutions in this category might state that the country aims to protect the right to higher education or intends to provide free higher education.
  • Guaranteed means that the constitution protects the right to higher education in authoritative language. For example, constitutions in this category might guarantee citizens’ right to higher education or make it the State’s responsibility to provide this level of education. However, the constitutions in this category do not guarantee that higher education is free.
  • Guaranteed free means that the constitution guarantees the right to free higher education in authoritative language.