Do citizens have a specific right to health?


This map tells us whether nations include provisions to protect the overall right to health for citizens in their constitution.

Only constitutional provisions are included in this map. Legislative protections are not shown here. Read more about why constitutions matter.

More information:

  • The right to health includes the right to “health,” “health security,” and overall well-being”.
  • Not granted means that the constitution does not explicitly mention health protections. This does not mean that the constitution denies these protections, but that it does not explicitly include them.
  • Granted to specific groups, not universally means the constitution explicitly guarantees the right to health, public health, or medical services to specific groups, but not to all citizens. Specific groups that are named in constitutions include children, the elderly, the poor, persons with disabilities, women, and ethnic minorities.
  • Aspirational means that the constitution protects the right to health, public health or medical services but does not use language strong enough to be considered a guarantee. For example, the nation will endeavor to provide the right to health or intends to provide medical services.
  • Guaranteed means that the constitution explicitly guarantees the right to health, medical services, or public health to citizens in authoritative language. For example, constitutions in this category might guarantee citizens’ right to health or make it the State’s responsibility to ensure the protection of the right to health.