Do constitutions protect the right to work for adults based on their ethnicity?


 

This map shows whether a country’s constitution includes measures to protect the right to work based on ethnicity.

Only constitutional provisions are included in this map. Legislative protections are not shown here. Read more about why constitutions matter.

More information:

  • Work rights are considered to be protected based on ethnicity when work protections are guaranteed explicitly on the basis of ethnicity or when these rights are granted to all citizens and the constitution states that individuals enjoy rights on an equal basis regardless of their ethnicity. These rights include: the right to work, prohibition of discrimination in work generally, and prohibitions of discrimination in specific aspects of work such as hiring, promotions, and working conditions.
  • None specific to ethnicity means that the constitution does not explicitly protect the right to work based on ethnicity. This does not mean that the constitution denies this right, but that it does not explicitly include it. The country may protect citizens’ right to work, but not specifically based on ethnicity.
  • Aspirational means that the constitution protects the right to work based on ethnicity but does not use language strong enough to be considered a guarantee. For example, constitutions in this category might state that the country aims to protect or promote equity in work based on ethnicity.
  • Specifically guaranteed with exceptions includes cases where equity in work is guaranteed based on ethnicity but allows this protection to be curtailed in certain circumstances based on ethnicity. This category does not apply to this map as there are no countries that have exceptions to protection against discrimination in work based on ethnicity.
  • Broadly guaranteed means that the constitution guarantees the right to work to citizens and provides general protection against discrimination based on ethnicity, but does not specifically protect against discrimination in work based on ethnicity
  • Specifically guaranteed means that the constitution protects the right to work based on ethnicity in authoritative language. For example, constitutions in this category might guarantee protection against discrimination in work based on ethnicity or make it the State’s responsibility to ensure this right.
  • On mouseover on the map, a note may appear for some countries which indicates “potential positive action”. This is a measure or measures that may be taken to compensate for past discrimination or current inequalities on the basis of ethnicity. Positive action can be framed in guaranteed terms (e.g., “the State shall adopt measures of affirmative action in work for ethnic minorities”) or in terms that leave open the possibility for positive action (e.g., “Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from taking measures to promote the employment of ethnic minorities, in order to address past discrimination against them”).